Psychology

This course helps the student understand people. This is the study of how and why we do the things we do. Psychology includes the study of emotions, motivation, how the brain works and our perceptions. Students study personality and intelligence as well as mental illnesses and treatment therapies.

0.0 Start Here

Welcome to the class! I look forward to working with you - I am here to answer your questions, so don't hesitate to ask for help. You will find my e-mail and contact information on the main class page, near the top. Remember, this class is worth .25 credit when completed.
Please get started as soon as possible. You need to stay active in the class (submit at least one assignment each week), or you may be dropped. Plan to finish the class in less than six months.



Check Required Resources page
To find out what books (if any) or other materials you may need for this class, see the Required Resources page (the link in Topic 1 on your class page). Order or locate books right away, so you will have them when you need them for assignments.
Submit About Me assignment
Look under Topic 3 on your class page to find the link to your first assignment – About Me. Submit that assignment right away. Here’s how:
Open the assignment by clicking on its name. Read the directions, and use a ‘notepad’ program or word processor on your computer to type your work. **Save it on your computer so you have a copy (do this with all your assignments).** Then use the “Edit my submission” button to open a box where you can paste in your work. Next, use the “save changes” button. That sends your assignment to me.
Many of your assignments will be submitted the same way – do them on your computer, paste into the “Edit my submission” box, and then save to submit it. Some assignments may require you to upload files – follow the instructions on the assignment screen to browse to your file and upload it. Usually, you will get an e-mail message letting you know when I have scored it.

Read the first unit material
Look under Topic 2 on your class page to find the units. The name of the unit is a link that will take you to lessons, links, and basic assignment instructions for that unit. Read through the first unit now. Download any files or PDF documents that go with lessons. You may want to print some material out so that you can refer back to it as you work.
Checking your grades
On the left of your class page, under Administration, you will find a link called Grades. You can use that to see a list of all assignments with your scores and any teacher comments. Near the bottom you will find a point total for what you have done so far.
Using the message tool
Near the top left of your screen you will see “Messages”. Your teacher might send you a message, and this is where you will find it. You can reply to the message, or send a message to your teacher here instead of using e-mail.
Ethics
Remember the EHS Honor Code: "As a student of the Electronic High School, I agree to turn in my assignments in a timely manner, do my own work, not share my work with others, and treat all students, teachers, and staff with respect."
You must not copy other students’ work, or allow other students to copy yours. Do not copy and paste work from the internet, or engage in any form of plagiarism (using others’ ideas, words, and/or organization without giving proper credit to the source).
Special instructions
Remember to submit at least one assignment a week. If you cannot, then send me an e-mail telling me about your progress. You do need to send in an assignment every two weeks to avoid getting dropped from the class. Happy learning!

((I love this place...do you know where it is at?)

0.0 Start Here

Welcome to the class! I look forward to working with you - I am here to answer your questions, so don't hesitate to ask for help. You will find my e-mail and contact information on the main class page, near the top. Remember, this class is worth .25 credit when completed.
Please get started as soon as possible. You need to stay active in the class (submit at least one assignment each week), or you may be dropped. Plan to finish the class in less than six months.



Check Required Resources page
To find out what books (if any) or other materials you may need for this class, see the Required Resources page (the link in Topic 1 on your class page). Order or locate books right away, so you will have them when you need them for assignments.
Submit About Me assignment
Look under Topic 3 on your class page to find the link to your first assignment – About Me. Submit that assignment right away. Here’s how:
Open the assignment by clicking on its name. Read the directions, and use a ‘notepad’ program or word processor on your computer to type your work. **Save it on your computer so you have a copy (do this with all your assignments).** Then use the “Edit my submission” button to open a box where you can paste in your work. Next, use the “save changes” button. That sends your assignment to me.
Many of your assignments will be submitted the same way – do them on your computer, paste into the “Edit my submission” box, and then save to submit it. Some assignments may require you to upload files – follow the instructions on the assignment screen to browse to your file and upload it. Usually, you will get an e-mail message letting you know when I have scored it.

Read the first unit material
Look under Topic 2 on your class page to find the units. The name of the unit is a link that will take you to lessons, links, and basic assignment instructions for that unit. Read through the first unit now. Download any files or PDF documents that go with lessons. You may want to print some material out so that you can refer back to it as you work.
Checking your grades
On the left of your class page, under Administration, you will find a link called Grades. You can use that to see a list of all assignments with your scores and any teacher comments. Near the bottom you will find a point total for what you have done so far.
Using the message tool
Near the top left of your screen you will see “Messages”. Your teacher might send you a message, and this is where you will find it. You can reply to the message, or send a message to your teacher here instead of using e-mail.
Ethics
Remember the EHS Honor Code: "As a student of the Electronic High School, I agree to turn in my assignments in a timely manner, do my own work, not share my work with others, and treat all students, teachers, and staff with respect."
You must not copy other students’ work, or allow other students to copy yours. Do not copy and paste work from the internet, or engage in any form of plagiarism (using others’ ideas, words, and/or organization without giving proper credit to the source).
Special instructions
Remember to submit at least one assignment a week. If you cannot, then send me an e-mail telling me about your progress. You do need to send in an assignment every two weeks to avoid getting dropped from the class. Happy learning!

((I love this place...do you know where it is at?)

7.1 Psychological Disorders and Therapy

Unit 7 Introduction to Mental Disorders and Therapy

This Unit will require a lot of reading. The first two units were relatively easy and Unit 8 will also be quite easy. So consider this the HARD Unit!

In all likelihood, you know someone or care about someone who has had a psychological disorder. Each year, there are nearly 2.1 million inpatient admissions to U.S. mental hospitals and psychiatric units. Another 2.4 million seek help as outpatients. Many more NEED help, but don t get it (estimated 1 in 5 Americans!). As you read through the descriptions of the psychological disorders in this Unit, you may find that you have experienced or are experiencing the symptoms outlined. Don t jump to conclusions though! Many of us may feel anxious, depressed, suspicious or antisocial. In order to have a diagnosable psychological disorder though, it needs to be intense enough to interfere with normal functioning and go on for an extended period of time. It is actually sometimes difficult to know exactly where to draw that line between 'normality' and 'abnormality'. There is actually a set of 'standards' that have been created to determine this 'line'. It is written in a book called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual on mental Disorders 4th edition, normally called DSM-IV. This manual defines the different psychological disorders by outlining the specific symptoms and criteria for diagnosis. Perhaps we should take a moment and define Psychological Disorder. This is a harmful dysfunction in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable. The keys here are harmful and dysfunction .

We're going to go to an Internet site of an organization that specializes in the research of psychological disorders. This is NIMH, the National Institute of Mental Health. Ever heard of them? You probably have, if you ve seen the animated movie, The Rats of NIMH . You will be reading about 10 specific psychological disorders, falling into 3 general categories. There are 17 general categories in the DSM-IV manual, so we're obviously not learning about ALL of them! Be sure to print out your objectives for this Unit and take notes as you read along on the website. You'll also get introduced to some therapies as well.

The websites:
Mood Disorders (Depression): http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depression.cfm
Anxiety Disorders: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/anxiety.cfm
Schizophrenia: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/schizoph.cfm

You can also read more about specific disorders by going to NIMH s public information page at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/index.cfm

Another category of Psychological disorders not listed on this site is Personality Disorders. These are psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. Some disorders in this category include:
•Avoidance Personality Disorder a fearful sensitivity to rejection that causes a person to withdraw from social interaction.•Histrionic Personality Disorder one who displays shallow, attention getting emotions and goes to great lengths to gain others praise and reassurance.•Narcissistic Personality Disorder One who exaggerates their own importance and has success fantasies.•Borderline Personality Disorder One who has an unstable identity, unstable relationships, and unstable emotions.•Anti-social Personality Disorder (formerly called sociopath or psychopath) a person (usually a man) who has a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends or family. Often, they have an aggressive, ruthless or clever con-artist tendency.

Therapy

As you did your reading about Psychological Disorders, you came across a few therapeutic techniques:
Pscyhopharmaherapy (Taking medication)
Psychotherapy ( talk therapy), two of the most common, and then
Electroconvulsive Therapy (shock therapy).
We ve come a long way from where we started in therapy. In ancient times up to the1600 s, people with mental illnesses were though to have demons . The treatment was to exorcize the demon, make the person an outcast, or lock them up. In the 1600 s, a hospital in London called St. Marys of Bethlem (commonly called Bedlam) housed mental patients. Visitors could come and tour the facility and see the inpatients . Kind of like a zoo. Treatments included restraint, bleeding , cutting holes in the head or literally, beating the devil out of the patient. I m sad to say that things only improved a little with the help of people like Dorothea Dix (from Unit 1) and others.

Here in Utah, in the 1950 s, things had not improved that much from Bedlam. We had state run Mental illness hospitals where the most severe cases were institutionalized and treated. A common practice was the Lobotomy. This is a surgical technique developed by Egas Moniz, who actually received a Nobel Prize for this technique. First, the patient was shocked into a coma, then a neurosurgeon would hammer an ice pick like instrument through each eye socket into the brain. He would then wiggle it to sever connections running up to the frontal lobes. The whole procedure was cheap and only took about 10 minutes. It produced a permanently lethargic, immature, impulsive personality. This procedure was even used on a 16 year old who had depression! This surgery did make people more manageable in these institutions, but then it s easy to just sit around and stay out of trouble when you are a vegetable. They also used shock therapy, hydrotherapy and insulin therapy as well as the same cut a hole in the brain treatment! Eventually, the pharmacy companies came out with some drugs like Thorazine, which helped calm patients without the long-term effects of a lobotomy. Then, if I remember right, the State run Mental Hospitals were closed down in the 1980 s. As a young college student, I remember delivering drugs to the Hospital in American Fork. It was like a zoo with zoo-keepers. Some patients were actually in cages, slightly larger than a crib. There were awful moans and noises and it was very disturbing to see the treatment of some of the patients. I hope and believe we are treating individuals with mental illnesses more effectively and more humanely.

Treatment is varied depending on the viewpoint and training of the therapist. If you or a loved one requires treatment, I recommend doing some research and then visiting 2 or 3 different therapists before actually beginning therapy. Sometimes your insurance will limit who you can or can t see.

There are 250 or more types of psychotherapy ( Talk therapy). You were briefly introduced to 2 in your reading: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Systematic Desensitization (this is where the phobic patient is exposed to what they fear gradually until they no longer fear the object. It was never titled , but only described in your reading). There are two more psychotherapies you need to be familiar with. One is Psychoanalysis, developed by Sigmund Freud. This is a more complex form of talk therapy designed to bring forward repressed impulses and conflicts. The patient is made comfortable on a couch and the therapist works with different techniques to bring these repressed feelings into conscious awareness where the patient can then deal with them. There is a lot to this therapy and you ll have to read more on you own if you are interested. Another is Client-Centered Therapy developed by Carl Rogers. This therapy is less active for the therapist. Their role is to have unconditional positive regard for the therapist and to actively listen to the client. In this environment of emotional safety, the client talks, while the therapist merely mirrors their feelings and thoughts.

In addition to psychotherapy, you ve already read enough about medications and Electro-convulsive therapy in treatment. Now it s time to do the assignments!

07.2.3 Final Psychological Disorders Assignment

This is the 3rd and final assignment for unit 7. The instructions are in topic 3 where you will post your assignment. After this assignment, you will be ready for the unit 7 quiz.

Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
60 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
20 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
10 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
7 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

07.2.2 Psychological Disorders assignment

This 2nd assignment for unit 7 will help you better understand mental illness. Go to topic 3 for the instructions.

Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
120 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
30 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
10 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
7 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

07.2.1 Pscychological Disorders Assignment

This assignment will demonstrate some of the knowledge you have gained while reading the content material. The instructions for the assignment are found under topic 3 where you will submit the assignment.

Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
120 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
30 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
10 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
7 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

06.2.5 Achievement Motivation Assignment

The final assignment for Unit 6 helps you look into achievement....pretty interesting when you get to looking into it. Go to topic 3 for the instructions. After completeing this assignment, you will be ready for the Unit 6 quiz.

Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
60 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
20 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
10 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
7 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

06.2.4 Motivation in Society

The third assignment for Unit 6 is about motivation in Society. Please go to topic 3 for the instructions for this assignment.

Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
60 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
20 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
10 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
7 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

06.2.3 Understanding YOUR Motivation Assignment

The second assignment for Unit 6 is learning to Understand YOUR motivation. Please go to topic 3 to read the instructions for the assignment. For the assignment, you may need one of the files attached.

Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
60 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
30 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
10 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
7 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

06.2.2 Understanding Motivation assignment

Now that you have read all the material for unit 6 and have taken notes based on the objectives, it is time to do the 4 assignments for this unit. The first assignment is Understing Motyivation.

Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
60 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
30 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
10 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
7 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

06.0.1 Purpose in life quiz

The purpose in Life test is a pdf file that has a link for you to click on.

04.6 Unit 4 Quick Quiz(Psychology)

Be sure to complete your assignments, gather your notes and reading material before attempting the quiz!
You will need to score at least 75% on this quiz (that's 26 points!) If you score BELOW this, then you will need to do an additional assignment. That assignment will be to take the objectives from this unit, make notes on all the items, and post it to the digital drop box labeled, "Quiz 4 make up". You can earn an additional 5 or 6 points on your quiz for this, but this is ONLY for students scoring below 75%.

Scoring Method: 
teacher-scored
Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
40 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
0 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
35 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
25 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

04.5.3 Digging Deeper Inside Yourself (Psychology)

This assignment is worth 10 points. Please go to the assignment portion under topic 3 to read the instructions and submit your assignment.

Scoring Method: 
teacher-scored
Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
60 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
15 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
10 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
7 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

04.5 Social Cognitive Perspective on Personality(Psychology)

Social Cognitive Perspective on Personality
This perspective takes several views and combines them. Social Cognitive perspective believes we learn many of our behaviors through conditioning or modeling…just like the learning theorists. But the difference is that social cognitive theorists also emphasize the important of mental processes (what we think about our situations). Combining these two ideas then, social-cognitive theorists focus on how we and our environment interact. How do we interpret and respond to situations? How do our schemas, our memories, and our expectations influence our behavior patterns?

Albert Bandura, who we discussed briefly in Unit 3, coined the term reciprocal determinism. This term describes the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors. For example, children’s TV viewing habits (past behavior) influences their viewing preferences (personal factor), which influences how television (environmental factor) affects their current behavior. The influences are mutual. There’s like 3 sides of a pyramid that influence behavior. See the diagram.

There are 3 specific ways in which individuals and their environment react:

1. We can choose our environment, partly based on our disposition. You choose your environment, and then it shapes you.

2. Our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events. Anxious people are more likely to ‘look for’ potentially threatening events…more so than people who are not anxious. Therefore, they will simply ‘see’ more threatening events than people who are not anxious. The reality is that there is the same number of threatening events. Our disposition lets us see the world, not as it really is, but how we perceive it because of who we are, and then we react accordingly.

3. Our personalities help create situations to which we react. Many experiments reveal that how we view and treat people influences how they in turn treat us. If we expect someone to be angry with us, we may give him or her a cold shoulder, touching off the very behavior we expect.

In this view, we can see that we are both the PRODUCT of our environment as well as the CREATOR. This is important to remember! Knowing this can be empowering as we live our lives. Think about this for a moment. Do you know someone who goes around being a ‘victim’ of life? This and this happens to them…always. No matter what, they think that the world is dumping on them and they can cite situation after situation as proof that it is true. Now think about it in light of what you just read. Then you can see the more important question is…what behaviors are they doing to illicit these bad things happening to them? And more importantly…if they could change what they are looking for (not bad…but good), what would they find? Is it the proverbial seeing the glass as half full or half empty? What do you think?

That leads us into the next concept…the idea of control. Social-cognitive psychologists emphasize personal control….whether we learn to see ourselves as controlling our environment or being controlled by it. There are two ways we perceive control: External locus of control is the perception that chance or outside forces determine our fate. Then there are those who have an Internal locus of control. This means that they believe to a great extent that they control their own destiny. Obviously, we can’t control everything in our environment. For instance, the weather, who are our parents are, etc. But study after study shows that people who believe that they have control over their lives are more independent, enjoy better health, are better able to cope with various stresses (including marital problems) and are less depressed than those who perceive the external locus of control. People who feel helpless and oppressed often perceive control as external. To an exaggerated extent, people can be resigned to learned helplessness. This is when they experience no control over repeated bad events. In concentration camps, prisons, some factories and colleges, people given very little control experience a similar lowering of their morale and an increase in stress. Even such things as moving chairs, controlling room lighting, participating in decision making can make a difference to people in these circumstances.

In assessing behavior, this approach centers on the idea that past performance is the best predictor of future behavior. There is a lot to think about in this theory of personality. You can see the validity of some of the ideas. But, without considering the unconscious, this theory is incomplete.

04.4 Humanistic Perspective on Personality(Psychology)

The Humanistic Perspective
The Humanistic view emphasizes the growth potential of healthy people. Contrast this to the somewhat negative view of Psychoanalytic theory. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are names you’ll want to know.

Abraham Maslow studied historical and living successful people to develop his theory. He believed that if basic human needs are fulfilled and self-esteem is achieved, people would strive to actualize their highest potential. Maslow developed a hierarchy of needs. Self-actualization is the process of fulfilling our potential. Maslow stated, “What a man can be, he must be”. See the hierarchy of needs listed at the end of this section.

Although Maslow’s ideas are very popular, there are people who are exactly the opposite. The first one who comes to mind is Vincent Van Gogh, the great painter. His hierarchy of needs was probably exactly upside-down. His life was fraught with not enough food, homelessness, poverty, serious love problems, etc. Yet he painted some of the world’s most famous artwork…never receiving recognition for them in his lifetime.

Carl Rogers believed that people are basically good and have a tendency towards self-actualizing. There are three things we need in order to be able to grow:

1. Genuineness

2. Acceptance

3. Empathy

These 3 things are as important to our growth as the water, sun and nutrients are needed for plants to grow. “As persons are accepted and prized, they tend to develop a more caring attitude toward themselves” (Rogers, 1980, “A Way of Being”, pg. 116). One study that supported Roger’s theory was done with pre-school children. Parents who exhibited these attitudes usually had children who became creative adolescents.

A central feature of personality then, is one’s self-concept. Self-concept is all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in answer to the question, “Who am I?” If our self-concept is positive, we tend to act and perceive the world positively. If it is negative—if in our OWN eyes we fall far short of our ‘ideal self’-- then we feel unhappy, and we tend to perceive the world negatively. Self-esteem refers to how worthwhile we think we are. One study showed that high self-esteem pays off. People with high self-esteem:

· Sleep better

· Don’t give in as easily to peer pressure

· Are less likely to use drugs

· Are less shy and lonely

· Are more persistent at difficult tasks

· Are just plain happier

This kind of makes you want to have high self-esteem doesn’t it? So where do you get your self-esteem and how can you improve it? These are important questions. Childhood versions of self-concept come from what other people tell us about ourselves. As we grow older, we add our own information and experience. The key here is to develop our own positive idea of who we are, one that is not so dependent on other people’s opinions. Another key about self-esteem is understanding that we are human, therefore, NOT perfect! Some of us need permission to make mistakes and screw-up…as if that doesn’t happen to EVERYBODY! You may know someone who doesn’t have a very accurate self-concept. A boring person who thinks he’s hilariously funny, or a drop dead gorgeous person who thinks she’s ordinary looking. In actuality, most of us see ourselves in a more positive light than we really deserve. Is that a problem? No, probably not, as long as it is within reason. It probably is helpful to see ourselves more positively, than more negatively! One of your assignments will be about your view of yourself!

The development of self-esteem is a controversial one. Some schools have tried to 'teach' a higher self-esteem. But research shows this doesn't work. Where does a strong self-esteem come from? I believe it is from doing something hard, and then when we've completed that hard task, we feel better about ourselves and have greater respect for our efforts. The problem then is that it is human nature to take the 'path of least resistance' or in other words, do what is easiest. My experience with ALL people shows that this is generally true. Think about it a minute. When you are given assignments in class...generally you will perform the minimum for the grade you want. How many students do you know that go above and beyond what is asked for? But if you look at successful people, that is a key to their success...going above and beyond. That is true for athletes, musicians, artists, business people. Then why would we allow ourselves to do the minimum? It hurts our self-esteem and robs us of fulfilling our potential. So remember this on the next term paper you are assigned. Instead of doing the 5 pages...do 15! Instead of using 3 sources, use 6! What will be the result of this action? Greater self esteem, recognition from the teacher, and you will REALLY know your subject matter! You never know when that might come in handy! So remember...self-esteem comes from doing HARD things...not taking the EEASY way out!

One aspect of self-concept that is important to teenagers in general is how others perceive them. As you grow into adulthood and gain greater self-esteem and more positive self-concept by accomplishing tasks and learning to be OK with yourself, this issue becomes less important. One interesting study might be helpful to know. A group of college students were told to wear a ‘dorky’ Barry Manilow T-shirt in an area filled with their peers. The T-shirt wearers guessed that half of their peers would notice their dorky shirt. In reality, only 23% of them noticed their shirt. Fewer people notice less than what we expect. So when you are feeling like you stick out like a sore thumb…remember…you’re probably not! That could be depressing though for those of us who WANT to be noticed!

Back to Carl Roger’s theory! Carl Roger’s theory is nice, and is VERY important in the kind of work that I do. However, many of us do not grow up in homes and schools filled with these three necessary traits. So does that mean we are doomed to have low self-esteem and unhappiness? What do you think?

04.5.2 Who Are You? Your Personality Discocered (Psychology)

This assignment is worth 10 points. Please go to topic #3 to read the instructions and post the assignment. There are a total of 3 assignments for Unit 4.

Scoring Method: 
teacher-scored
Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
120 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
15 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
10 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
7 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

04.3 Trait Theory of Personality(Psychology)

The Trait Perspective
Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality in terms of the dynamics that underlie behavior. Gordon Allport took an altogether different approach. He simply tried to describe personality in terms of fundamental traits-people s characteristic behaviors and CONSCIOUS MOTIVES. Lets look at apples. Every apple is unique. BUT, there are some definite characteristics that you could classify apples by. For instance, you could classify an apple by how sweet or sour it is. This could be one spectrum. You could classify them by color, crispness, etc. Trait theories attempt to do the same thing. William Sheldon classified people by body type; some health psychologists classify people by type A and type B personalities. You may have taken a color test to determine which of 4 color personality types you were.

The most detailed trait test available is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. There are 4 different scales that are used to measure your personality. The combinations then allow for 16 different personality types. This test is widely used in businesses and career counseling. Most people can agree with their announced type profile. The four scales for the Myers Briggs Type Indicator are:

1. Introvert vs extrovert (I or E). Where do you get your energy? From being around people or being by yourself? Which one brings you more joy?

2. Sensing vs intuition (S or N). Where do you like to get your information from? Do you like to get information from your senses? Your from your gut instincts inside you?

3. Thinking vs feeling (T or F). How do you like to make decisions? Do you like to think about it with your head, or would you rather make a decision based on how you feel about it?

4. Judging vs Perceiving (J or P). How do you like to live your life? Do you like to plan everything out based on the judgments you made about it previously, or would you rather keep yourself open for opportunities, making snap decisions and having flexibility?

Take a guess at what you think your personality type may be. Your type will include 4 letters, ie ISTJ for Introvert, Sensing, Thinking, Judging. Then take a minute to determine your personality with the test below. Be sure to read about your personality type and jot down the information. You'll need it for one of your assignments!

http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes1.htm

One of the personality traits not discussed is the optimism-pessimism spectrum. This attempts to measure how you characteristically explain events. Do you see them as negative or positive? Perhaps you ve known a pessimist. They attribute poor performance to their lack of ability or to situations beyond their control. Such students are more likely to persist in getting low grades. Then there are those optimistic people who adopt a more hopeful attitude that effort, good study habits and self-discipline can make a difference. Although we don t want to make a judgment about personality styles, there does seem to be some evidence that being optimistic can be healthier than being pessimistic. In repeated studies, optimists have been found to outlive pessimists or live with fewer illnesses. Something to think about. However, a note of caution is needed here. Excessive optimism can sometimes blind us to real risks. Over 200 research reports show that people may fail to make sensible precautions because of their optimism. For instance, most young Americans know that half of U.S. marriages end in divorce, but they are confident that theirs will not. Most cigarette smokers do not believe that they will fall victim to many of the natural consequences of smoking. So where do you lie on this optimism-pessimism spectrum?

04.2 Psychoanalytic Perspective on Personality(Psychology)

Sigmund Freud and the Psychoanalytic Approach to Personality
Freud's story is kind of interesting. He is the author of a VERY controversial theory. His theory has given us great understanding into ourselves, but at the same time has offended almost everyone! His story stars with his mentor and friend, Dr. Joseph Breuer, and Breuer's patient, called Anna O.

Anna O. was Joseph Breuer's patient from 1880 through 1882. Twenty-one years old, Anna spent most of her time nursing her ailing father. She developed a bad cough that proved to have no physical basis. She developed some speech difficulties, then became mute, and then began speaking only in English, rather than her usual German.

When her father died she began to refuse food, and developed an unusual set of problems. She lost the feeling in her hands and feet, developed some paralysis, and began to have involuntary spasms. She also had visual hallucinations and tunnel vision. But when specialists were consulted, no physical causes for these problems could be found.

If all this weren't enough, she had fairy-tale fantasies, dramatic mood swings, and made several suicide attempts. Breuer's diagnosis was that she was suffering from what was then called hysteria (now called conversion disorder), which meant she had symptoms that appeared to be physical, but were not.

In their sessions together, Anna would recall some emotional event which gave meaning to some particular symptom. For example she had refused to drink for a while. Then, through therapy, she recalled seeing a woman drink from a glass that a dog had just drunk from. While recalling this, she experienced strong feelings of disgust...and then had a drink of water! Then, her symptom -- an avoidance of water -- disappeared as soon as she remembered its root event, and experienced the strong emotion that would be appropriate to that event. Breuer called this catharsis, from the Greek word for cleansing.

It was eleven years later that Breuer and his assistant, Sigmund Freud, wrote a book on hysteria. In it they explained their theory: every hysteria is the result of a traumatic experience, one that cannot be integrated into the person's understanding of the world. The emotions from the trauma are not expressed in any direct fashion, but do not simply evaporate: They express themselves in behaviors that in a weak, vague way offer a response to the trauma. These symptoms are, in other words, meaningful. When the client can be made aware of the meanings of his or her symptoms, then the unexpressed emotions are released and so no longer need to express themselves as symptoms. It is like lancing a boil or draining an infection.

In this way, Anna got rid of symptom after symptom. It was Freud who would later add to the theory of hysteria that secret sexual desires lay at the bottom of all these hysterical neuroses. To finish her story, Anna spent time in a sanatorium. Later, she became a well-respected and active figure -- the first social worker in Germany -- under her true name, Bertha Pappenheim. She died in 1936. She will be remembered, not only for her own accomplishments, but also as the inspiration for the most influential personality theory we have ever had.

Sigmund Freud was born May 6, 1856, in a small town -- Freiberg -- in Moravia, later moving to Vienna. His father was a wool merchant with a keen mind and a good sense of humor. His mother was a lively woman, her husband's second wife and 20 years younger. She was 21 years old when she gave birth to her first son, her darling, Sigmund. A brilliant child, always at the head of his class, Sigmund went to medical school, one of the few viable options for a bright Jewish boy in Vienna in those days.

Psychoanalytic theory
Freud didn't exactly invent the idea of the conscious versus unconscious mind, but he certainly was responsible for making it popular. The conscious mind is what you are aware of at any particular moment, your present perceptions, memories, thoughts, fantasies, feelings, etc. Working closely with the conscious mind is what Freud called the preconscious, what we might today call "available memory:" anything that can easily be made conscious, the memories you are not at the moment thinking about but can readily bring to mind. Now no one has a problem with these two layers of mind. But Freud suggested that these are the smallest parts!

The largest part by far is the unconscious. It includes all the things that are not easily available to awareness, including many things that have their origins there, such as our drives or instincts, and things that are put there because we can't bear to look at them, such as the memories and emotions associated with trauma. According to Freud, the unconscious is the source of our motivations, whether they are simple desires for food or sex, neurotic compulsions, or the motives of an artist or scientist. And yet, we are often driven to deny or resist becoming conscious of these motives, and they are often available to us only in disguised form.

We, as people, are still animalistic in that we are an organism that acts to survive and reproduce. Therefore, our primary needs are hunger, thirst, avoidance of pain and reproduction. The id is a part of our personality that makes sure we meet these needs. The id works on the pleasure principle, which can be understood as a demand to take care of needs immediately. Just picture the hungry infant, screaming itself blue. He doesn't "know" what he wants in any adult sense; he just knows that he wants it and he wants it now. The infant, in the Freudian view, is pure, or nearly pure id. It is like the id is the psychic representative of biology. You may have noticed that, when you haven't satisfied some need, such as the need for food, it begins to demand more and more of your attention, until there comes a point where you can't think of anything else. This is the wish or drive breaking into consciousness.

The ego brings the organism to reality by means of its consciousness. It searches for objects to satisfy the wishes that the id states we need. The ego, unlike the id, functions according to the reality principle, which says "take care of a need as soon as an appropriate object is found." It represents reality and reason.

However, as the ego struggles to keep the id (and, ultimately, the organism) happy, it meets with obstacles in the world. It occasionally meets with objects that actually assist it in attaining its goals. And it keeps a record of these obstacles and aides. In particular, it keeps track of the rewards and punishments meted out by two of the most influential objects in the world of the child -- mom and dad. This record of things to avoid and strategies to take becomes the superego. It is not completed until about seven years of age. In some people, it never is completed. There are two aspects to the superego: One is the conscience, which is an internalization of punishments and warnings. The other is called the ego ideal. It derives from rewards and positive models presented to the child. The conscience and ego ideal communicate their requirements to the ego with feelings like pride, shame, and guilt. It is as if we acquired, in childhood, a new set of needs and accompanying wishes, this time of social rather than biological origins. Unfortunately, these new wishes can easily conflict with the ones from the id. You see, the superego represents society, and society often wants nothing better than to have you never satisfy your needs at all!

Freud saw all human behavior as motivated by the drives or instincts, which in turn are the neurological representations of physical needs. The motivational energy of these life instincts, the "oomph" that powers our psyches, he called libido, from the Latin word for "I desire." Freud's clinical experience led him to view sex as much more important in the dynamics of the psyche than other needs. Later in his life, Freud began to believe that the life instincts didn't tell the whole story.

The ego -- the "I" -- sits at the center of some pretty powerful forces: reality; society, as represented by the superego; biology, as represented by the id. When these make conflicting demands upon the poor ego, it is understandable if it -- if you -- feel threatened, feel overwhelmed, feel as if it were about to collapse under the weight of it all. This feeling is called anxiety, and it serves as a signal to the ego that its survival, and with it the survival of the whole organism, is in jeopardy.

Freud mentions three different kinds of anxieties: The first is realistic anxiety, which you and I would call fear. If I throw you into a pit of poisonous snakes, you might experience realistic anxiety. The second is moral anxiety. This is what we feel when the threat comes not from the outer, physical world, but from the internalized social world of the superego. It is, in fact, just another word for feelings like shame and guilt and the fear of punishment. The last is neurotic anxiety. This is the fear of being overwhelmed by impulses from the id. If you have ever felt like you were about to "lose it," lose control, your temper, your rationality, or even your mind, you have felt neurotic anxiety.

The Defense Mechanisms
The ego deals with the demands of reality, the id, and the superego as best as it can. But when the anxiety becomes overwhelming, the ego must defend itself. It does so by unconsciously blocking the impulses or distorting them into a more acceptable, less threatening form. The techniques are called the ego defense mechanisms, and Freud, his daughter Anna, and others have discovered quite a few. These are important to keep in mind. You may notice that you use them regularly! Understanding these defense mechanisms can be very helpful in living your life and understanding what’s going on with others. It’s important to understand that all of these mechanisms ‘distort’ reality. Below are just SOME of the mechanisms:

Denial involves blocking external events from awareness. If some situation is just too much to handle, the person just refuses to experience it. This is helpful when someone we love has just died. We keep ourselves from feeling the entire reality of it all at once, which would overwhelm and incapacitate us. Instead, we let a little information in at a time, deal with it, and then let a little more in. It’s amazing really. But sometimes, we can use this defense mechanism to hurt us.

Repression, which Anna Freud also called "motivated forgetting," is just that: not being able to recall a threatening situation, person, or event. For example, someone almost drowns as a child, but can't remember the event even when people try to remind him -- but he does have this fear of open water! Note that, to be a true example of a defense, it should function unconsciously. Repressed urges or trauma often seeps out in dreams and ‘slips of the tongue’.

Displacement is the redirection of an impulse onto a substitute target. If the impulse, the desire, is okay with you, but the person you direct that desire towards is too threatening, you can displace to someone or something that can serve as a symbolic substitute. Someone who hates his or her mother may repress that hatred, but direct it instead towards, say, women in general. Someone who has not had the chance to love someone may substitute cats or dogs for human beings. Someone who is frustrated by his or her superiors may go home and kick the dog, or beat up a family member.

Projection, involves the tendency to see your own unacceptable desires in other people. In other words, the desires are still there, but they're not your desires anymore. “He doesn’t trust me” may be a projection of the actual feeling of “I don’t trust him” or “I don’t trust myself”.

Reaction formation, which Anna Freud called "believing the opposite," is changing an unacceptable impulse into its opposite. So a child, angry with his or her mother, may become overly concerned with her and rather dramatically shower her with affection. Your friend may claim adamantly that they can’t stand that guy in class, when in reality, she is crazy about him. Strange, huh?

Regression is a movement back in psychological time when one is faced with stress. When we are troubled or frightened, our behaviors often become more childish or primitive. A child may begin to suck their thumb again when faced with the anxiety of the first day of school. Juvenile monkeys, when anxious, retreat to clinging to their mother or one another as they did when they were very young. Even homesick college students may feel the need to bring their special ‘blanket’ or old toy with them to the dorms!

Rationalization is the cognitive distortion of "the facts" to make an event or an impulse less threatening. We do it often enough on a fairly conscious level when we provide ourselves with excuses. But for many people, with sensitive egos, making excuses comes so easy that they never are truly aware of it. In other words, many of us are quite prepared to believe our lies.

Sublimation is the transforming of an unacceptable impulse, whether it is sex, anger, fear, or whatever, into a socially acceptable, even productive form. So someone with a great deal of hostility may become a hunter, a butcher, a football player, or a mercenary. Someone suffering from a great deal of anxiety in a confusing world may become an organizer, a businessperson, or a scientist. Someone with powerful sexual desires may become an artist, a photographer, or a novelist, and so on. For Freud, in fact, all positive, creative activities were sublimations.

All defenses are, of course, lies, even if we are not conscious of making them. But that doesn't make them less dangerous -- in fact it makes them more so. Freud saw defenses as necessary. You can hardly expect a person, especially a child, to take the pain and sorrow of life full on! And of course, sublimation itself is a very positive defense mechanism that probably doesn’t hurt us at all.

The Stages
As stated earlier, for Freud, the sex drive is the most important motivating force. Perhaps it would be more useful to call it “Pleasure” driven. Freud noted that, at different times in our lives, different parts of our skin give us greatest pleasure. It appeared to Freud that the infant found its greatest pleasure in sucking. In fact, babies have a penchant for bringing nearly everything in their environment into contact with their mouths. So he developed three stages:

The oral stage lasts from birth to about 18 months. The focus of pleasure is, of course, the mouth. Sucking and biting are favorite activities.

The anal stage lasts from about 18 months to three or four years old. The focus of pleasure is the anus. Holding it in and letting it go are greatly enjoyed.

The phallic stage lasts from three or four to five, six, or seven years old. The focus of pleasure is the genitalia. It is during this stage that the “Oedipus Complex” occurs. Oedipus was a Greek legend that unknowingly killed his father and married his mother. The Oedipus complex is a boys’ sexual desires toward his mother an feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.

The latent stage lasts from five, six, or seven to puberty, that is, somewhere around 12 years old. During this stage, Freud believed that the sexual impulse was dormant.

The final stage, the genital stage, from adolescence on, the person begins to experience sexual feelings toward others in the true ‘sexual’ sense.

Freudians believe that we all go through these stages, in this order, and pretty close to these ages. In Freud’s view, problems in adulthood result in conflicts that were unresolved in early stages. At any point in the stages, strong conflict can lock or ‘fixate’ the person’s pleasure-seeking energies in that stage. For instance, people who were orally overindulged or deprived might fixate at the oral stage. These might continue to seek oral gratification through excessively smoking or eating. You’ve heard of the term, ‘she’s anal’. This means the individual was fixated during the anal stage for some reason and is now highly controlled and compulsively neat. He or she will tend to be especially clean, perfectionist, dictatorial, very stubborn, and stingy. In other words, the anal retentive is tight in all ways. The Felix Unger character in The Odd Couple is a perfect example.

Therapy
Freud's therapy has been more influential than any other, and more influential than any other part of his theory. The therapy situation is in fact a unique social situation, one where you are completely relaxed and free of social pressure. The environment includes the physically relaxing couch, dim lights, and soundproof walls. Techniques the therapist might use are free association, dream interpretation or projective tests. Projective tests give ambiguous information, which the client must make some meaning for. Rorschach inkblot tests were produced by inkblots. They are held before the client, and the client must tell what they see. The client ‘projects’ their unconscious conflicts and impulses into the images they ‘see’. Although there is a lot of controversy about these types of tests, they are still widely used. One of your assignments will be to take one of these tests….more for fun than therapy though!

04.5.1 Personality Theories Assignment(Psychology)

This assignment is worth 10 points. Please go to topic three to read the assignment instructions and to post your assignment. There are 3 assignments for this Unit.

Scoring Method: 
teacher-scored
Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
60 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
15 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
10 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
7 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

04.1 Intro to Personality(Psychology)

Personality
When you think of someone’s personality, you probably think about how they act, they way they think, etc. Personality is your characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting. The basic elements of personality are thought to be consistent and somewhat stable throughout your lifespan. Knowing your personality can help you choose a career, understand what you need in your relationships, how or why you act the way you do in some situations. Hopefully, this unit will focus on not just theories about personality, but give you information about YOU and YOUR PERSONALITY!

There are basically 4 different perspectives on personality. Each has some validity, and each some unanswered questions. You’ll want to become acquainted with each, and critique them from you own perspective as to their value. The 4 different perspectives are:
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, which proposes that libido and unconscious motivations influence personality.
The Trait perspective, in which researchers identify personality dimensions that account for our consistent behavior patterns. You’ll be able to identify your personality with some tests in this area. You may have learned what ‘color’ your personality is, or what ‘animal’. All these are different themes on the ‘trait’ perspective of personality.
The humanistic approach, which focuses on our inner capacities for growth and self-fulfillment.
The social-cognitive approach, which emphasizes how we shape and are shaped by our environment.
Many of these sounds like some of the information you began with in this Course. They are! You’ll go into more detail in this section of personality.

04.0 Personality...Can I Borrow Yours?(Psychology)

Objectives for Unit 4: Personality
The ‘Objectives” for each chapter are easy to skip over. DON’T!!! You should actually print out these objectives and take notes on the printout as you read. This way you’ll have ALL the information you need for the quiz at your fingertips when it is time to take it! Also, you need to know this information to complete your assignments. Remember to read ALL pages!!
Define ‘personality’
Be able to understand, compare and contrast the 4 different approaches to personality, including the Psychoanalytic approach, the Trait perspective, the humanistic perspective and the Socio-cognitive perspective.
Understand and define the following vocabulary from the different approaches:
Hysteria
Catharsis
Conscious, preconscious and unconscious mind
Id
Pleasure principle
Ego
Reality principle
Superego
Conscience
Libido
Anxiety: realistic, moral and neurotic types
Defense Mechanisms:
i. Denial
ii. Repression
iii. Displacement
iv. Projection
v. Reaction formation
vi. Regression
vii. Rationalization
viii. Sublimation
Psychosexual stages of Development
i. Oral stage
ii. Anal stage
iii. Phallic stage
iv. Latent stage
v. Genital stage
Oedipus complex
Projective Tests
Traits
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
i. Introvert vs extrovert
ii. Sensing vs intuition
iii. Thinking vs feeling
iv. Judging vs perceiving
v. Optimism vs pessimism
Hierarchy of needs
Self-actualization
Self-concept
Self-esteem
Reciprocal determinism
External locus of control vs internal locus of control
Learned helplessness
Understand the contributions of the following individuals:
Sigmund Freud
Gordon Allport
Abraham Maslow
Carl Rogers

03.3.2 Unit 3 Quiz(Psychology)

Be sure that you have completed all your assignments and have copies of them in front of you. Also have all your notes from the objectives handy. Review them once more before attempting this quiz. Remember, it's open note and book!!! You will need to score at least 75% on this quiz (that's 30 points!) If you score BELOW this, then you will need to do an additional assignment. That will be to take the objectives from this unit, make notes on all the items, and send it to me in an e-mail!

Scoring Method: 
teacher-scored
Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
40 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
0 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
40 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
28 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

03.3.1 Learning....Applying the Principles(Psychology)

Time to experiment...on you, your friends or a pet! This assignment is worth 10 points! IMPORTANT! Remember to put all Unit 3 assignments AND the grading rubric with your scores for the assignments in one document and submit to the digital drop box. THANKS!

Scoring Method: 
teacher-scored
Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
60 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
15 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
10 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
7 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

03.3 Intelligence(Psychology)

Intelligence
What is intelligence? Do you know your IQ score? What does IQ mean? Are IQ scores useful in any way? These are some of the questions you should be able to answer after reading this section.
It all started when the French government passed a law requiring all children to attend school. There was a great difference between student’s abilities. Indeed it seemed some students didn’t benefit from public school and needed ‘special’ classes. So in 1904, the French government commissioned Alfred Binet and others to come up with a test to identify children who would not be able to succeed in regular classes; “slow learners”. The end result was the Binet test. When this test was modified to fit American children, it became the Stanford-Binet test. Unfortunately after Binet’s death, researches used this test to measure IQ (intelligence quotient). The IQ was simply a person’s mental age divided by their chronological age, then multiplied by 100. An average IQ is around 100. An 8 year old who has the mental ability of a 10 year old (as measured on the Stanford-Binet) would have an IQ of 125.

10 ¸ 8 * 100 = 125

This formula works fairly well for children, but not for adults. Today’s tests have been revised.
What is intelligence? Is intelligence something hereditary or is it dependent on environment and opportunities? Being intelligent would mean something different in different cultures. In our culture, for instance, school smarts is highly valued. But the ability to hunt without being eaten is an intelligence that would be more highly valued in the tribesman of South Africa. In general, intelligence is the ability to learn from experience, solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. You can see that this definition of intelligence fits both scenarios described above. The Stanford Binet seems to measure more school smarts or verbal smarts than the hunting example above. But we know some people who may be geniuses in math, but unable to understand much literature, and vice versa. People often have special abilities that stand out, but Charles Spearman believed that there is a general intelligence or g factor that underlies these specific abilities no matter how diverse they may be. Because the Stanford-Binet test really measured academic smarts, other scientists began looking for intelligence in other areas and ways.
Howard Gardner asserts that there are multiple intelligences, at least 8 different kinds of intelligences. He studied people with brain damage and those with exceptional abilities. People with Savant Syndrome often score low on intelligence tests, but have some other incredible ability in computation, drawing or musical ability. If you’ve seen Dustin Hoffman in “Rain man”, you’ve seen an example of a Savant. For one of your assignment choices, you will have the opportunity to take a multiple intelligence test to see where your strengths lie! It’s quite interesting. Unfortunately, the test only measures 7 of the 8 intelligences. The 8th intelligence is ‘naturalist’ and was included after the test was created for the other 7 intelligences.
Another concept that has surfaced somewhat recently is “Social intelligence”. This type of intelligence has very little to do with academic success, but rather, how one does in working with other people in social settings. Emotional Intelligence is the ability to perceive, express, understand and regulate emotions. Emotionally intelligent people are especially self-aware. They manage their emotions, delay instant gratification in favor of long-term goals and have great empathy for others. They know what to say to comfort people and manage conflicts well. They are often successful in careers, marriages and parenting where other academically smarter people may fail. You will be given a chance to measure your emotional intelligence in the assignments.
So, can we assess these other intelligences? Can we teach people to acquire these other intelligences? Can we measure intelligence physiologically? We are still looking for the answer to these questions.
Testing
As a student, you’ve probably been given all kinds of tests. In Utah, you’ve taken the SAT test (Stanford Achievement Test) probably in 3rd, 5th, 8th and 11th grades. This test is an achievement test- intended to tell us what you have learned. This is quite a different test than an aptitude test, which is designed to predict your ability to learn. The ACT test that you will probably take to get into college, is an aptitude test. When you take the tests however, they don’t seem that different in content. Today, the most widely used intelligence test is the WAIS or WISC, the Weschsler Adult Intelligence Scale or the Weschsler Intelligence Scale for Children. It is this test that is used in combination with other test to determine if students need special classes to learn. The scores from these tests give more information than just intelligence. It also gives teachers an idea of strengths and weaknesses they can use for teaching the student. Don’t worry at this point…you won’t have to do this test for your assignment!
What do we do when someone scores extremely low or high on an intelligence test like the WISC? When someone scores quite low, then they are considered to have mental retardation. This is a condition of limited mental ability as measured by an intelligence score below 70 and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life. There are actually categories or degrees of mental retardation. This varies from mild to profound.

Have you known someone who fits these different categories? Sometimes we can’t tell if there is mental retardation, or a disabling condition such as cerebral palsy by looking at someone. Someone with cerebral palsy doesn’t have control of their physical body, but their mind can still be very sharp.
The other extreme is gifted children, who score 135 or above on an intelligence test. These children may be singled out and provided ‘gifted education’, but more often than not are simply mainstreamed in education and society. These gifted children are usually very successful in academics, but not always. Often, they get bored and then into trouble with regular education.
By now, we should have answered many of the questions posed at the beginning of this section. But as you can see, there are many questions still unanswered. Perhaps YOU can help find these answers!

03.2.1 Memory And Intelligence Assignment(Psychology)

This should be a fun assignment for you! It is worth 10 points. You will be doing ALL three choices for this assignment!

Scoring Method: 
teacher-scored
Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
120 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
15 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
10 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
7 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

03.2 Memory(Psychology)

Memory
Did you know that every time you learn something new or have a new experience, that your brain cells change???? That s right! Memory is actually a physical change that happens within your brain. As you study the material, you will learn about different kinds of memory as well as the different phases of memory. One thing that might surprise you most is that you need sleep to keep your memory! Bet you wouldn t have guessed that!
Let s start with the three phases of memory. These will make sense to you.
7 First you must encode information (getting the information into a form or code that the memory mechanisms will accept).
7 Second, you must store or retain the information.
7 Finally, you must be able to retrieve that information.
If you have a problem remembering something, it s usually a problem with one of the above phases. This will be discussed a bit later.
We also need to quickly cover a few types of memory before we can begin doing some of the fun stuff. There is a memory that is temporary. It is only stored in the brain for a short time. Therefore, it is called Short Term Memory (STM). That s not so amazing is it? This memory will stay temporary unless we process it and get it into Long Term Memory. This processing includes such things as making judgments about meaning, relevance, or by connecting it to other memories or things we ve learned in the past. When a person forgets immediately the name of someone to whom he or she has just been introduced, it is because the name was not transferred from short-term to long-term memory. (That happens to me ALL the time!)
Short term memory has a big limitation in that only small amounts of information can be retained in short term memory at a time. To illustrate this, take a minute and go to the following website for Test of your short term memory. Notice when you start having problems remembering .
Short Term Memory Test: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/stm0.html
How did you do? I printed out the charts and did the test, then figured my percentages. I scored 100% until trial #5. Then my percentage went down. Research illustrates that a person who is asked to listen to and repeat a series of 10 to 20 names or numbers normally retains only five or six items. Usually, it is the last five or six. If one focuses on just the first numbers, that interferes with numbers that follow, making it difficult to recall the last numbers. People make a choice where to focus their attention. Retrieving information from STM is direct and immediate, because the information has never left the conscious mind. Information can be maintained in STM indefinitely by a process of rehearsal . That is repeating it over and over again. But while rehearsing some items to retain them in STM, people cannot add new items. The limitation on the amount of information you can keep in STM is physiological, and there is no way to overcome it. That is why LTM becomes very important.
Long Term Memory (LTM) is great because there aren t limits to what we can keep stored here. However, the trouble with LTM is that it is sometimes difficult to put it there in the first place (encode) and is sometimes difficult to retrieve information from.
Now let s get back to the brain. Physically, the brain consists of roughly 10 billion neurons, each like a computer chip capable of storing information. The computer analogy is excellent in understanding our brains. Each neuron has octopus-like arms called axons and dendrites (you should remember this from the last unit!) Electrical impulses flow through these arms and are passed along by neurotransmitters through the synaptic gap between neurons. Memories are stored as patterns of connections between neurons. Read that sentence again: memories are stored as patterns of connections between neurons. When two neurons are activated through this process, the connections or synapses between them are strengthened. As you are reading this material, the experience actually causes a physiological change in your brain. The paths are fired through different neurons, creating new pathways. The pathways are only marked however. It is when you are sleeping that our brain gets to work and actually creates the connections. When you dream, you are test firing the connections to see that they are working properly. That s why sleep is important. If you ve been learning at school all day, your brain is going to need a lot of sleep time to get all those connections hard wired in your brain. So now you can give your mom a scientific reason for sleeping in the morning!
Memory records a lifetime of experience and thoughts. Such a massive data retrieval mechanism must have some organizational structure. Otherwise, information that enters the system could never be retrieved. Imagine finding a book in the largest library you ve ever seen without having a system to catalog and locate the books! There has been considerable research on how information is organized and represented in memory. Current research focuses on which sections of the brain process various types of information. This is determined by testing patients who have suffered brain damage from strokes and trauma or by using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) that lights up the active portion of the brain as a person speaks, reads, writes or listens.
Imagine memory as a massive, multi-dimensional spider web. What do you see? Lots of fibers all connected. One thought leads to another. It is possible to start at any one point in memory and follow a winding path to reach any other point. Information is retrieved by tracing through the interconnections to the place where it is stored.
Retrieving information becomes easier if there are a number of locations it can be retrieved from and also if the pathways are strong because of frequent use. What does this mean? Relating new material to as many different things as you can is important as well as repeating that thinking over a several day period. Does that give you some ideas on how to study for a test effectively? The more frequently a path is followed, the stronger that path becomes and the more readily available the information that is located along that path. If you haven t thought of a subject for some time, it may recall details. After thinking our way back into the appropriate context and finding the general location in our memory, the interconnections become more readily available. We begin to remember names, places and events that seemed to be forgotten.
There is another phenomenon. Once people have started thinking about a problem one way, the same mental circuits or pathways get activated and strengthened each time they think about it. This facilitates the retrieval of information. These same pathways, however, also become the mental ruts that make it difficult to reorganize the information mentally so as to see it from a different perspective. That explains why, in the previous unit, once you saw the picture of the old woman, it was difficult to see the young woman, or vice-versa. This is important to think about: Information that doesn t fit into what people know or think they know they have great difficulty processing it. BUT, this still isn t as hard as getting you to think about something in a different way than the way you have thought of it before.
We organize the information we receive to connect it together. We create schemas, or a pattern or relationships among stored data. Think of a toddler for a minute. When they are first learning to talk and identify things, they have a broad schema for items. For instance, all men are thought of as dadda until we teach them to be more selective and consider dadda that main man who lives with and care for them. For toddlers also, their schema initially may place doggie as any furry, four-footed creature.
It used to be that how well a person learned something was thought to depend upon how long it was kept in short-term memory or the number of times they repeated it to themselves. Research evidence now suggests that neither of these factors plays the critical role. The KEY FACTOR in transferring information from short term memory to long term memory is the development of associations between the new information and schema already available in memory. This in turn, depends upon two variables: how well the new information relates to already existing schema and the level of processing given to the new information.
Relating new information to existing schema: Take one minute to memorize the following items from a shopping list: bread, eggs, butter, salami, corn, lettuce, soap, jelly, chicken and coffee. Chances are, you will try to burn the words into your mind by repeating them over and over. Such repetition is effective for maintaining the information in STM, but is ineffective in transferring it to LTM. The list is difficult to remember because it doesn t correspond with any schema already in memory. The words are familiar, but that isn t enough. If the list were changed to juice, cereal, milk, sugar, bacon, eggs, toast, butter, jelly and coffee, the task would be much easier. The items correspond to an existing schema items you may eat for breakfast.
Level of processing: This is the second important variable in determining how well information is retained. The more effort and thought you put into thinking about the new information, the stronger and more numerous the associations are within your brain. In trying to remember the list above, you can say how many letters there are in each word, or find a word to rhyme with each word, or use an image with the word (a visual picture is a strong cue for most of us!), or make up a story that incorporates each word on the list. The greater the depth of processing, the greater the ability to recall words on a list.
There are three ways in which information may be learned or committed to memory: by rote, assimilation or use of a mnemonic device.
By rote. Material to be learned is repeated verbally enough times that it can later be remembered. The key here is that there needs to be a lapse of time between repetitions. If you are tying to remember how to spell some vocabulary items, repeat them aloud trying to remember the spelling for a 10 minute period for 4 days in a row. You ll be amazed that you ve created a new schema for these words! Still, this is a brute force technique forcing the information into your memory in an isolated way. This is the least efficient way of remembering.
By assimilation. New information is linked to existing schema and can be retrieved readily by first accessing the existing schema and then reconstructing the new information. A good example for this comes from the movie, Stand and Deliver . The teacher tries to teach the structure of DNA to some gang related, low achieving students. One students just doesn t get it. The teacher then finds some existing schema the student has to relate the new information to. In this case, it is the relationship of his brothers in the hood. After explaining the new information in the context of the old, the student understands it, goes on to do well in school, and lives happily ever after. Just my kind of flick!
By Using a Mnemonic Device. A mnemonic device is any means of organizing or encoding information for the purpose of making it easier to remember. For instance, to remember the names of the great lakes, you can use the acronym HOMES , for Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior.
To learn the first grocery list of disconnected words, you would create some structure for linking the words to each other and/or to information already in the LTM. You could imagine shopping or putting the items away and mentally picture where they are located on the shelves at the market or in the kitchen. Or you might imagine a story concerning one or more meals that include all these items. Any form of processing information in this manner helps aid in remembering .more effective than rote learning. Mnemonic devices are useful for remembering information that does not fit any appropriate conceptual structure or schema already in memory. They work by providing a simple, artificial structure to which the information is linked and learned. To remember, first recall the mnemonic device, then access the information you ve linked to it.
Forgetting or Problems with Remembering
Problems with remembering information comes from a variety of sources. It could be:
Encoding problems such as not really paying attention enough to the details (like when you can t remember where we put our car keys!), or interference (discussed later).
Storage decay: not using the information and it slowly fades away.
Inability to bring the information back (like when a word is on the tip of our tongue but we can t get it out!)
Repression; from psychoanalytic theory that this basic defense mechanism banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from our conscience.
Inattention
Not paying enough attention is probably something you ve experienced. When you don t focus on a conversation, it s easy to lose track of what the person is trying to say. When it s hard to listen to a teacher, it s also hard to learn from them. But when you really pay attention, or attend to something, it s seems so much easier to learn. That s because when you attend to something, you actually become physically aroused, activating chemicals in the brain that aid your ability to learn.
Interference
Learning some items may interfere with learning others, especially when they are similar. If one person gives you a phone number, you may easily remember it. But, if 2 or more friends give you their numbers in the same evening, you will have a hard time remembering them. Proactive interference occurs when something you learned earlier disrupts your recall of something you tried to learn later. As you collect more and more information, it becomes tougher to store, organize and retrieve it. For example, if you buy a new combination lock or get a new phone number, the old one may interfere with the new one, making the new one hard to remember. Retroactive interference occurs when learning something new makes it harder to recall something you learned earlier. One way to overcome interference problems is to sleep shortly after learning the new information. Experiments have confirmed that the hour before a night s sleep (but not the minute before!) is a good time to commit information to memory.
Implicit vs Explicit Memories
Studies with amnesia patients or brain injured individuals has led us to an awareness of different types of memory. Amnesia is loss of memory. For instance, one study involved teaching amnesia victims to solve a tower of Hanoi puzzle which requires moving rings from one pole to another until they are stacked in order by size. Amnesia victims will deny having seen the puzzle before, insist it s silly to even try, and then, like experts, proceed to solve it. They are in some ways like people with brain damage who can t consciously recognize faces but whose physiological responses to familiar faces reveal an implicit (unconscious) recognition. There seems to be two different memory systems working in tandem. Whatever has destroyed conscious recall in these individuals with amnesia has not destroyed the unconscious capacity for learning. They can learn how to do something, called implicit memory (procedural memory), but they cannot know and declare that they know called explicit memory (declarative memory). Explicit memory is memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know. Having read a story once, they will read it faster a second time, showing implicit memory. But there will be no explicit memory for they cannot recall having seen the story before.
There are some other things about memory you should know. But before we begin, let s do another quick memory test. Be sure to read the material following the test so you can learn about this phenomenon of our memory. Go to:
http://www.msnbc.com/onair/nbc/nightlynews/memory/default.asp
Now there s a dilemma how do you know your false memories from your true ones?
Emotions and Memory
Emotions are also physical changes in our brain. These physical changes can interfere with or help our memory process. A little anxiety acts to stimulate our brain and prepare it for learning. But too much anxiety and the chemicals produced will actually block our learning and retrieval ability. So before a test, relax with some deep breathing and calm yourself down with positive self talk. After all, if you studied, the information will come to your brain if you just stay calm!
Lets go to another website with ideas on how to improve our memory. Be sure to note the effects smoking, alcohol, drugs and caffeine has on our ability to remember. You ll also want to make note of these ideas, you'll be asked to provide some on your quiz!
Improving memory website:
http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/edis771/fall99webquests/student/sc...
http://www.pjstory.com/Content.asp?nav=4&id=94
At this site, go to two sections for the information you need: The first is Challenges to memory and then Measures to improve brain health
A good site with a variety of info about memory and the brain:

http://www.braingle.com/mind/index.php

03.1.1 Learning Assignment(Psychology)

Be sure to read the Course material for this unit before attempting the assignments! This assignment is worth 10 points.
IMPORTANT! Include all the assignments for unit 3 AND the grading rubric for unit 3 in one document and submit to the digital drop box. THANKS!

Scoring Method: 
teacher-scored
Approximate Student Minutes Needed to Complete: 
60 minutes
Approximate Teacher Minutes Needed to Complete: 
15 minutes
Total Points Possible: 
10 points possible
Minimum Points Required: 
7 points required for credit
Credit Type: 
required activity

03.1 Principles of Learning(Psychology)

Principles of Learning
When I first read about principles of learning, I asked myself…”How in the world is THIS going to help me get better grades on tests?” When you start reading this material, you may ask yourself the same question. I think they should re-label this first part to be “primitive learning” or “survival learning” or something…because it doesn’t seem to have much to do with the word “learning” as we use it in an educational setting. But if you look at the definition of learning…then the material you read next will make some sense. Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience.

Classical and Operant Conditioning
I’m actually sending you to an Animal Trainer’s website because it is the best-written, most concise article on Classical and Operant Conditioning. They have a good definition of these kinds of learning as well as letting you have ‘real life’ applications of each. You’ll want to scroll down the entire first and second parts to get the information you’ll need to know. Be sure and keep your objectives handy so you can write down needed definitions and such.
http://www.wagntrain.com/OC/#Learning

Several years after Pavlov’s early experiments, John Watson came on the scene. He was working in a laboratory to put himself through school. He liked the rats. He taught them all kinds of tricks. They were able to find their way through mazes, solve problems like dig through obstacles, and build tunnels. He discovered that the rats learned their behavior from a series of stimuli and responses. He is famous for his “Little Albert” experiment. Today, our ethics wouldn’t allow such practice. But a woman who worked where Watson worked, would bring her child with her while she was working. Watson (unbeknownst to her), stated a series of conditioning the child to be afraid of rats. He did this by pairing the rat with the unconditioned stimulus of a loud noise (slamming a steel bar with a hammer). Albert loved the rat at first and played with it. But after awhile, Little Albert became terrified of the rat. Watson then went on to notice that Little Albert generalized his fear to a white rabbit, and other objects somewhat similar to the white rat. Generalization is the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus. In the case of Pavlov and his dogs, he found that the dogs would salivate to different bell tones. He also found that a dog that was conditioned to salivate when rubbed would also salivate when scratched.
Mary Cover Jones used the “Little Albert” experiment productively. She wondered if she could reverse the procedure and cure a child of a terrible fear. She found a three year old named Peter who would panic at the sight of a rabbit. She brought him into a room with a rabbit. From a safe distance, she gave him a treat he liked. She would move the rabbit closer and give him more treats. She continued doing this for some time and wah-lah…it worked! This same or similar process successfully treats fears, called phobias, today.
When you read about Operant conditioning on the website, it didn’t tell you much about B. F. Skinner. Skinner believed that how we turn out in life is the result of what we learn from all the operations (operant conditioning) we make over the years. If some behavior we do brings us positive effects, we tend to repeat it. If our behavior brings us negative effects, we tend to stop that behavior. Skinner did experiments with pigeons and got them to do all kinds of different behaviors by rewarding or punishing their behavior. He believed so much in the power of the environment, that he made a special crib for his daughter. It had the perfect temperature, light humidity. She didn’t even wear diapers!

Observational or Social Learning
Learning not only occurs through conditioning, but by our observation of others. Observational learning is where we observe or watch others, then imitate them. The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior is called modeling. You know…the old adage, ‘monkey see, monkey do’.
Albert Bandura is a pioneer of observational learning. In one of his first experiments, he had a preschool child at work drawing. An adult in another part of the room is working with some tinker toys. The adult gets up and for nearly 10 minutes, pounds, kicks and throw a large inflated Bobo doll around the room, while yelling such remarks as “sock him in the nose…hit him down….kick him.”
After observing this behavior, the child is taken to another room where there are many toys. But the experimenter interrupts the child’s play and explains that she can’t play with these. The child is then taken to another room with just a few toys, including a Bobo doll. Guess what the child does? That’s right. Imitates the adult’s behavior with the Bobo doll. Children are especially likely to imitate those they perceive to be like them, successful or admirable. That doesn’t surprise you though, does it?
The bad news is that antisocial models that you might see in your neighborhood or on TV may have antisocial effects. In the first days after the 1999 Columbine High School massacre, every U.S. state except Vermont had to deal with copycat threats or incidents. This also helps explain why men who beat their wives often had wife-battering fathers, and why abuse of any kind continues to cycle through generation after generation. The good news is that prosocial (positive, helpful) models can have prosocial effects. Research indicates that Christians in Europe who risked their lives to rescue Jews from the Nazis usually had a close relationship with at least one parent who modeled a strong humanitarian concern.
Our knowledge of learning principles comes from the work of thousands of investigators. This Unit just focuses on the ideas of a few pioneers: Pavlov, Watson, Skinner and Bandura, as well as the introductory principles of learning. Think about your own life for a moment. Can you name a few things that you have learned by Classical conditioning? Operant Conditioning? Observational Learning?
In the next section we’ll learn about the kind of learning that you do at school….and perhaps in the process you can gain tips to get better grades if you desire!

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